Economic Transition. The boost of cement production (1950-1959)
During the fifties, construction boosted due to a fast industrial growth and a significant transfer of manpower from the countryside to the city. This event directly affected the cement sector bringing the following changes:
Economic growth and the cement boom (1959-1970)
During the sixties, the new economic growth boomed the cement industry again, increasing production and consumption by four. Between the years 1960 and 1964 demand was superior to production making it necessary to resort to imports although nine new factories were established and important investments increased production a 23% between 1968 and 1971.
The sector was part of the “Comisión de Industrias de Materiales de la Construcción y Refractario”, that was created to assess production and consumption needs.
The sale of bulk cement became widespread thanks to the companies that built their own silos and to the increasing demand of concrete in plant to supply works. As a result, bulk cement represented the 15% of total sales in 1964 and the 28% in 1967.
Economic crisis and cement overproduction (1973-1980)
Industry was booming affecting positively the evolution in factory - technology. That is how in 1973 and 1976 two new factories were built (Cementos Alba in Gádor and Hornos Ibéricos in Carboneras) and many others were modernized, increasing production up to 33,4 million tonnes.
The Eighties (1981-1990)
The energy crisis that took place during the eighties obliged the cement industry to return to coal as their main fuel thus supplying the foreign market and compensating the lack of domestic demand. As a consequence, the sector reached its top exports, beating the 13 million tonnes and placing Spain at the head of European exporting countries and second after Japan in the world. The new growth period increased consume up to a 12% during 1985 and reached 28,6 million tonnes in 1990.
Later, the collapse of cement demand and the peseta’s devaluation to the dollar, reversed export trends. Due to this, a process of vertical integration was put into action including, aggregates extraction and commercialization, concrete and precast concrete elaboration, together with a diversification process towards other industrial sectors. On the other hand, investments were aimed at increasing production capacity, quality and productivity, and environmental impact reduction.